Training Programs in Vascular Biology
Here is a listing of Training Programs within the United States.
Training Program in Cardiovascular Biology: Pre-Doctoral - Boston University School of Medicine
Executive Assistant: Robin MacDonald
BU Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Office
Program Scope and Mission – Cardiovascular diseases represent the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the United States, and thus require major efforts in fundamental research. The training program, supported by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), provides a format for the training of future scientists who will devote time and efforts in developing the tools to study and control the disease. This program was initiated by Dr. Katya Ravid in 2003, inspired by Drs. Peter Brecher and the late Carl Apstein, prominent investigators and mentors in the field of Cardiovascular Biology. Training is offered to trainees in topics related to cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis heart failure and hypertension, with application of disciplines such as, physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics. The curriculum includes special courses in cardiovascular biology. Trainees participate in various activities of the Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute (CVI) at our institute. The training faculty is affiliated with basic science departments and with the CVI. There are strong research interactions between members of the training program. Each faculty has experience in teaching graduate courses, most have had numerous trainees that have gone on to hold academic positions, and all have at least one active grant from NIH. The program may be unique in that it provides an opportunity to train predoctoral fellows (PhD students and MD/PhD students) in translational and basic cardiovascular research in an academic setting in which considerable experience is available, where cutting-edge funded research in cardiovascular biology is ongoing, and where sensitivity to the need of graduate students is provided by an academic mentor approach.
Training in Multi-Modality Molecular and Translational Cardiovascular Imaging - Yale University School of Medicine
Albert J. Sinusas, MD
Yale University School of Medicine
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, DANA-3
P.O. Box 208017
New Haven, CT 06520-8017
Program Scope and Mission – The training program is focused on providing multi-disciplinary multi-modality training in molecular and translational cardiovascular imaging for highly qualified fellows holding either a MD or/and PhD, in preparation for academic careers as independent investigators in the highly clinically relevant field of cardiovascular imaging. Post-doctoral fellowship training will be 2-3 years in duration. Currently four fellowship slots are available, although this will be expanded to six. There are three primary research focuses in the post-doctoral training, 1) cardiovascular molecular imaging, 2) cardiovascular imaging technologies and analyses, and 3) translational cardiovascular imaging. Applicants will have full access to resources available through the Yale Translational Research Imaging Center (Y-TRIC), including: small and large animal surgical suite, state-of-the-art digital fluoroscopy suite, 3D ultrasound, novel hybrid CZT SPECT 64-slice CT, microSPECT/CT, microCT, and optical imaging, along with other institutional resources, including; PET/CT, and MRI. Participation in ongoing NIH funded projects. Applications are encouraged from clinical, engineering, and basic science departments. Each trainee is assigned a basic and clinical mentor, and participates in group projects, and weekly seminar series. The goal is to train individuals to work in a multi-disciplinary research environment. Applicants are encouraged to visit our website: http://y-tric.yale.edu/.
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Cardiovascular Research Training Program - University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Programs Administrator/Administrative Generalist
Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center
415 Lane Road (MR5) PO Box 801394
Charlottesville, Va. 22908
Program Scope and Mission – Despite decades of research there are still fundamental gaps in our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of most cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as well as the end stage clinical consequences of these diseases and how to better treat or prevent them. Indeed, CVD remains the leading cause of death worldwide. A central premise of our NIH T32 cardiovascular (CV) research training program (CVTP) is that these diseases are extremely complex, and that rigorous study of them requires trainees to have a strong foundation of knowledge of basic CV physiology, developmental biology, genetics, genomics, bioinformatics, epigenetics, pathology, systems biology, biomedical engineering, and many other disciplines. A major strength of our CVTP is that we have >50 outstanding clinical, translational, and basic science mentors representing all of these areas, and we have built a unique training program over the past three decades that integrates mentoring talents into producing the best trained cardiovascular scientists possible. Our goal is to provide pre-doctoral and post-doctoral trainees the necessary knowledge, intellectual capabilities, technical skills, and problem-solving abilities to conduct outstanding state-of-the-art CV research employing a wide range of powerful and innovative approaches.
The program is led by Dr. Gary K. Owens and two talented Associate Directors Drs. Brant Isakson and Shayn Peirce-Cottler who are exceptional CV researchers and mentors. Pre-doctoral trainees are selected from a large pool of outstanding trainees initially recruited into an umbrella biomedical sciences (BIMS) graduate program http://bims.virginia.edu/ or the UVA MD/PhD (NIH MST) Program https://mstp.med.virginia.edu/, whereas post-doctoral candidates are largely recruited by individual mentor labs or from one of several clinical residency-fellowship programs. After completing a highly innovative BIMS 6000 core course in integrated biology in year 01, CVTP pre-doctoral trainees take elective modular courses that are customized based on their interests and degree program. They also complete three lab rotations to aid in selection of a mentor. Only trainees who have already selected a CVTP mentor are eligible for appointment to our NIH T32 training grant. All trainees are required to take our signature CVTP advanced courses including BIMS 8052-3 (Advanced Vascular Biology) and BIMS 8064 (a trainee-run Careers/Professionalism Course), and are also required to attend our weekly research seminars, monthly research in progress sessions, bi-annual research retreats, and to complete biomedical ethics training. The CVTP also has an exceptional grant writing program including an annual workshop and approximately 20 annual grant brewing sessions.
There are many indices of the success of this program including CVTG trainees: 1) publishing many high impact first author papers including in some of the highest rated biomedical journals such as Nature, Nature Medicine, and Circulation Research; 2) having a >50% success rate in securing extramural fellowships upon first submission; 3) securing high quality post-doctoral, or faculty/leadership positions, at major academic medical centers, in the pharmaceutical industry, or with biotechnology companies; and 4) making extraordinary contributions advancing our understanding of the cardiovascular system, as well as developing better ways to treat or prevent CVD. .
Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences: Multidisciplinary Approaches for Metabolic Disease - University of Kentucky
Nancy R Webb, PhD
T32 Program Director
Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences
Director, Division of Nutritional Sciences
535 Wethington Health Sciences Building
Lexington, KY 40536-0200
Phone: (859) 218-1385
Program Scope and Mission – An NIH-funded T32 training grant entitled “Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences: Multidisciplinary Approaches for Metabolic Disease” is housed in the Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Kentucky. The training grant seeks to prepare biomedical scientists for academic careers in research focused on pharmacological and nutritional approaches to prevent and treat metabolic-based disorders. The training faculty come from 8 different departments in 4 Colleges across the University of Kentucky campus. They have expertise in the four theme areas of the training grant: obesity/diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neuroscience/aging.
Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology Training Program - Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Randi Sullivan, MD, MHS
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Department of Internal Medicine
Section on Cardiovascular Medicine
Medical Center Boulevard
Winston-Salem, NC 27157
Program Scope and Mission – The purpose of the CVD Epidemiology Training Program, a federally-funded National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Research Training Grant (2 T32 HL076132), is to attract and train a cohort of outstanding physician scientists who will be fluent in the latest developments in cardiovascular disease and able to apply this knowledge to the conduct of new cardiovascular epidemiology and clinical cardiovascular research. Key features of the training program include completion of a Master’s Degree in Clinical and Population Translational Science with a curriculum that also includes formal training in molecular biology and genetics, supplemental training in genomics, proteomics and informatics, joint mentorship with both clinical and basic science faculty, and participation in external NHLBI sponsored short courses in cardiovascular epidemiology, and the genetics of complex heart, lung, and blood disorders.
Predoctoral Training Program in Integrative Vascular Biology - University of North Carolina - McAllister Heart Institute
Christopher Mack, Director
Associate Professor of Pathology
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, NC 27599
Program Scope and Mission – In response to the demands of the post-genomic era, we established the Integrative Vascular Biology (IVB) Pre-doctoral Training Program at the University of North Carolina in 2002 to promote a collaborative interdisciplinary training environment for pre-doctoral students in the cardiovascular field. The IVB Program was founded on the breadth and depth of the cardiovascular research faculty at UNC and institutional strengths in genetic model systems, state of the art cell biology and imaging, high throughput genomic and proteomic analyses, and computational biology. The overall goal of the IVB Program is to provide Trainees with the interdisciplinary and collaborative skills necessary to extend their thesis work into new, innovative, and productive directions. Our primary training faculty are drawn from 12 UNC departments and have specific expertise in heart and blood vessel development, thrombosis and hemostasis, the mechanisms that contribute to atherosclerosis, and the pathophysiology and treatment of myocardial ischemic disease. By requiring trainees to collaborate with secondary mentors outside of their Field, Department, and/or Institution, the program teaches students to apply molecular, cellular, genetic, and computational approaches to pathological and physiological questions in cell, organ, and whole animal systems; to merge hypothesis- and discovery-based research; to develop high-throughput approaches in cardiovascular models, and to translate their work to clinical settings. Trainees are exposed to the latest concepts in cardiovascular biology by enrolling in advanced paper-based courses specifically designed for UNC's Graduate Certificate Program In Cardiovascular Science, by attending formal cardiovascular seminars by inside and outside speakers, and by participating in a bi-weekly student-led discussion group. To enhance the skills necessary for effective collaboration and career advancement, Trainees attend program workshops on grant writing, career development, and scientific rigor and responsibility, and they present their data formally at the annual IVB Research Symposium, a trainee-organized event that draws over 120 cardiovascular researchers from the greater Chapel Hill area. In summary, with an outstanding history in cardiovascular research, a strong, well-funded group of investigators centered around the McAllister Heart Institute, a structured academic program in Cardiovascular Science, and institutional excellence in genetic model systems, cell biology, high throughput sequencing, and computational biology, the UNC Integrative Vascular Biology Program offers an outstanding environment for multidisciplinary training of pre-doctoral students. For more information, please contact program Director Christopher Mack.
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Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Training Program - University of Wisconsin-Madison
Kristin Cooper, MS
Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Mail: Room 1005, 1111 Highland Ave
Madison, WI 53705
Phone: (608) 262-9826
Program Scope and Mission – Pharmacology is the knowledge of the biochemical and physiological actions of drugs, which act on cellular signaling pathways. The molecular basis of cellular signaling and its control by various drugs is a major aspect of modern pharmacology and this aspect is emphasized in the Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Training Program. The majority of signal transduction pathways still await discovery or at least a thorough molecular characterization. Members of our program employ the whole spectrum of modern biochemical, cell and molecular biological, physiological, and pharmacological methods in a basic research-oriented scientific environment to unravel the many unsolved mysteries underlying cellular regulation and signaling. Certain research initiatives have a translational component, with the goal of applying basic discoveries to developing new therapeutic modalities.
Our program brings together an outstanding group of over 70 dedicated trainers with a focus on cellular signal transduction. Graduates of the program will be well prepared for a career in basic biomedical sciences in academia, industry, and more. We provide a unique training experience for young scientists who want to elucidate basic principles of cellular signal pathways. Detailed knowledge of these pathways is the most important prerequisite for the discovery of new drugs and the treatment of diseases. The members of the Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Training Program invite you to examine the educational and research opportunities described on our website, and to consider joining this unique and exciting graduate program.
Postdoctoral Fellowship Training Program in Cardiovascular Outcomes Research - University of Missouri-Kansas City
John Spertus, MD, MPH
Missouri/Lauer Endowed Chair
Professor, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Clinical Director, Outcomes Research
Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute
Program Scope and Mission – Applications are invited for a 2-year postdoctoral training program in cardiovascular outcomes research to begin July 1, 2018. This T32 training program, funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute to the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC), is hosted by Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute (SLMAHI) in close collaboration with the University of Kansas.The Full-Time Training Program offers:
• Advanced seminars of specialized skills for Outcomes Research
• Opportunity to obtain an MS in Bioinformatics with an emphasis in Clinical Research for those without prior formal training in the field
• Multidisciplinary mentorship, individualized to meet the needs of each Fellow
• Hands-on research experiences with access to highly experienced statisticians and numerous databases including multicenter outcome registries (e.g., PREMIER, TRIUMPH, PORTRAIT, PRISM, OPEN CTO, OPTIMUM), clinical trial databases (e.g., PARTNER, FREEDOM, SYNTAX), national quality databases (e.g., ACC’s National Cardiovascular Data Registries, AHA’s National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) and publically available clinical trial and observational data sets.
• Salaried position based on NIH postdoctoral stipend scales
• Insurance benefits, vacation time, tuition (for MS coursework), and funds for travel expenses to professional conference(s)
University of Wisconsin Vascular Research Training Program
Program Director: Jon Matsumura, MD
Co-Program Director: Bo Liu, PhD
Program Coordinator: Sarah Pavao, Associate Administrative Program Specialist
Department of Surgery | University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
K6/160 CSC | 600 Highland Avenue | Madison, WI 53792-1690
Program Scope and Mission – The University of Wisconsin Vascular Surgery Research Training Program is a multidisciplinary and collaborative program that will co-train young physician/surgeons who have chosen to be vascular specialists, along with PhD scientists who have a research interest in vascular disease. This NIH-funded program provides trainees with multiple opportunities for research activities in vascular-related research disciplines in order to foster the development of knowledge, skill, and experience for success in the future academic careers of our trainees. Our goal is to accelerate the performance of basic, translational and clinical research for vascular disease by producing future surgeons, scientists and engineers who will meet the great need for innovation in treatments for the growing population of patients.
Understanding Cardiovascular Disease Mechanisms - The University of Cincinnati and Children’s Hospital
Jeffery D Molkentin, PHD
Children's Hospital Medical Center-Cincinnati
Office of Sponsored Programs
3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC #7030
Cincinnati, OH 45229
The University of Cincinnati and Children’s Hospital is carrying on a proud tradition of excellence in cardiovascular research and mentorship, which began 35 years ago under Dr Arnold Schwartz as one of the longest training programs in cardiovascular. Our current collective 19 faculty has placed 297 of their past trainees into academics over their careers, 154 of whom have run, or currently run independent research programs. The overall scientific emphasis of our training program will continue to build from a basic platform of cardiovascular physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and pharmacology, but will also incorporate the latest approaches in the post genomic era, as well as incorporating clinical and translational approaches. The cardiovascular environment at Cincinnati Children's and the University of Cincinnati is considered one of the very best in the country, with 19 NIH funded faculty (some 49 NIH grants amongst them as PI status), 166 collaborative papers published in 10 years, and the very latest technologies and approaches with outstanding core support. The leadership consists of the co-PIs Drs. Evangelia Kranias and Jeffery D. Molkentin, both of whom have a long standing track record of working closely together (15 years), as well as having excellent mentorship credentials. The training grant funds 3 pre- and 3 postdoctoral trainees. Predocs are selected by the Internal Advisory Committee from a wide pool arising from departmental graduate programs, while postdoctoral candidates are selected based on being accepted into a mentor's laboratory and then passing the screening process by the Internal Advisory Committee and co-PIs. The training program also has an educational core where both pre-docs and post-docs take elective classes in cardiovascular biology, genetics, statistics, grant writing and ethics in research. More importantly, the cardiovascular training faculty at the University of Cincinnati and Children’s Hospital is one of the largest groups in the nation and they incorporate the very latest technologies in the pursuit of their scientific endeavors. Strengths include generation of transgenic and gene-targeted mice, as well as CRISPR-mediated mouse production, in the pursuit of understanding single gene function in complex cardiovascular diseases. Genetics are also employed and the program also has a strong clinical mentorship track for trainees interested in translational science.
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Cardiovascular Biology Research - University of Hawai’i, Honolulu
Dr. Ralph Shohet
Dr. Michelle Tallquist
Center for Cardiovascular Research
John A. Burns School of Medicine
651 Ilalo Street, BSB 311
Honolulu, HI 96813
Program Scope and Mission Predoctoral and Postdoctoral fellowships are available in the Center for Cardiovascular Research at the University of Hawaii supported by an NHLBI T32 training grant. Our new medical campus on the shores of Honolulu has modern laboratories and state-of-the-art core resources. We are seeking highly motivated and talented individuals to lead projects focused on cardiovascular disease processes. Examples of some of the research areas in this interdisciplinary program are:
1.cardiac response to hypoxia
2.extracellular matrix control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and cardiac regeneration
3.the immunology of atherosclerosis
4.mTOR signaling in the heart
Funds for US citizens and permanent residents are provided on this T32 grant.
Interested applicants should submit:
•A cover letter including brief summary of research experience and career goals
•List of three scientific references .
Bioengineering Cardiovascular Training Grant (BCTG) - University of Washington
Michael Regnier, PhD
Washington Research Foundation Professor of Bioengineering
Associate for Research, Department of Bioengineering
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98109
Program Scope and Mission – The Bioengineering Cardiovascular Training Grant (BCTG) program provides an opportunity for predoctoral students interested in cardiovascular science and engineering to receive training support for their research under the guidance of excellent mentors. The program will simultaneously enrich the trainee’s research and strengthen the future of cardiovascular-related research and technology development in the United States.
The BCTG program is directed by Dr. Michael Regnier and a Steering Committee that selects trainees and monitors their training progress. Training support is usually provided for 2 years. Cardiovascular based research projects that involve collaboration between at least two research laboratories will be preferentially considered.
Participating departments include: Bioengineering, Biology, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Pathology, and Physiology & Biophysics. Predoctoral students from other departments may be considered. Students are eligible after being accepted into a laboratory and supported by the faculty mentor for at least one quarter. There are three main components of the training program:
1. Research in the laboratory of a BCTG faculty mentor on some aspect of cardiovascular physiology, pathology, development of therapeutic treatment, diagnostics and/or imaging.
2. A didactic component that includes a specialized course (Cardiac Bioengineering), a clinical cardiac imaging preceptorship, a seminar series that provides both broad-based knowledge and advanced concepts in focused areas, and a monthly journal club. Trainees with identified weaknesses in mathematics, engineering and/or integrative physiology will be strongly encouraged to do additional didactic training.
3. Communication and professional skills training by participation in seminar series, trainee seminars, and scientific writing programs. Emphasis is placed on career development, public speaking, manuscript preparation and writing fellowships or grant proposals (NIH, AHA, NSF, etc.) at the end of the training period.
Training in Integrative Bioengineering of Heart, Vessels, and Blood (T32 HL 105373) - University of California, San Diego
Andrew D. McCulloch, Ph.D.
UC San Diego
Department of Bioengineering
9500 Gilman Ave. MC0412
La Jolla, CA 92093-0412
Program Scope and Mission – The aim of this program is to train pre-doctoral bioengineering graduate students to apply quantitative bioengineering approaches to study integrative cardiac, vascular and blood physiology and pathophysiology and to work with physicians on developing novel technologies for therapy and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Trainees learn how to conduct interdisciplinary research by integrating: (a) the engineering and biomedical sciences; (b) across physical scales of biological structure from genes and molecules to tissues and organ-systems; (c) across interacting physiological systems and subsystems; and (d) basic research with technology innovation for clinical applications. Our goal is to train the next generation of bioengineering scientists to be leaders in innovative cardiovascular research and technology development to advance healthcare delivery and improve health outcomes. The program is especially well known for its leadership in systems biology, regenerative medicine and multi-scale bioengineering. Graduates have gone on to become leaders in research, industry and academia including department chairs of top programs.
Multi-Disciplinary Training Program in Cardiovascular Imaging - Stanford University School of Medicine
Joseph Wu, MD, PhD
Stanford University School of Medicine
ProfessorDirector, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute
Simon H. Stertzer, MD Professor of Medicine & Radiology
Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building
265 Campus Drive, Rm G1120B
Stanford, CA 94305-5454
CVI Website: http://med.stanford.edu/cvi.html
Program Scope and Mission – The Multi-Disciplinary Training Program in Cardiovascular Imaging at Stanford is funded by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health. The program is designed to train the next generation of CV imaging investigators by exposing them to three complementary areas – clinical, engineering, and molecular imaging. With the impact of cardiovascular disease on US and world health and the rapid advances in imaging technologies and cardiovascular biology, it is critical that fellows be provided a broad, multi-disciplinary, and collaborative training program to foster their ability to translate CV imaging research into clinical application. Mentors from the Schools of Medicine and Engineering, including Cardiovascular Medicine, Radiology, Molecular Imaging, Electrical Engineering, and Bioengineering are available. For more details: http://med.stanford.edu/cvi/education/cardiovascular-imaging-t32.html
Integrated Fellowship on the Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases - University of California, San Diego
Matthew A. Allison, MD, MPH, FAHA
University of California San Diego
Professor and Interim Chief
Division of Preventive Medicine
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health
9500 Gilman Drive, Mailcode 0965
La Jolla, CA 92093-0965
Program Scope and Mission – http://cvdepit32.ucsd.edu.
Training In Translational Science & Cardiovascular Medicine - Oregon Health & Science University
Nabil J. Alkayed, MD, PhD
James Metcalfe Chair of Cardiovascular Medicine
Professor and Director of Research, Knight Cardiovascular Institute
Oregon Health & Science University
3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239
Mail Code: UHN-2 ; Phone: 503.418.5502
Program Scope and Mission – http://www.navbo.info/OHSU2017-18.pdf.
Cardiovascular Research Training Program at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center
Thomas C. Resta, PhD
Professor and CRTP Director
Vascular Physiology Group
Dept. of Cell Biology and Physiology
1 University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001
Home Page: http://cbp.unm.edu/faculty-profiles/resta.html
Program Scope and Mission – The Cardiovascular Research Training Program (CRTP) at the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Center (HSC) is funded by a T32 grant from the NIH National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The goal of the CRTP is to provide exceptional pre- and post-doctoral trainees a broad, multidisciplinary background in cardiovascular and pulmonary research with integration between basic and clinical sciences. The CRTP partners with the interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program (BSGP; http://hsc.unm.edu/research/BREP/graduate/bsgp/index.html) at the UNM HSC. This non-departmental program provides training for PhD students in biomedical sciences in the first year followed by in-depth training in the chosen discipline in subsequent years. A training program with a concentration in cardiovascular physiology is available for all predoctoral CRTP trainees in the BSGP. The CRTP T32 provides an NIH level stipend, and allowances for tuition and fees, health insurance, training-related expenses, and travel to scientific meetings. Appointments are 2-3 years for predoctoral students and 2 years for postdoctoral trainees, with subsequent support provided by individual training fellowships or mentored career awards. Applications are restricted to U.S. citizens or permanent residents. For more information and program application instructions, please contact the CRTP Program Director, Dr. Thomas Resta, at the address below.
Mechanisms and Innovation in Vascular Disease – Stanford University CVI
David L. M. Preston, M.A.
Cardiovascular Institute Program Manager
265 Campus Drive, G1120; MC-5454
Stanford, CA 94305
This program trains a total of six fellows over two years in the following areas of vascular medicine & research: Vascular Reactivity & Thrombosis, Vascular Regeneration & Development, Metabolic or Lifestyle Influences on Vascular Outcomes, Proteomic Markers & Genetic Determinants of Vascular Disease, Gender & Ethnicity Differences in Vascular Disease, and Vascular Bioengineering. Twenty-nine faculty mentors from eighteen different departments within the School of Medicine and the University provide a variety of angles from which to address fundamental questions about vascular disease. A structured curriculum, well-defined mentorship, and both internal and external evaluations ensure that fellows receive training in both research and career development to prepare them for independent careers. All fellows undergo a minimum two-year training period, with strong encouragement to submit individual research proposals (NRSA and AHA) for the following year(s). Support for a second year is conditional on evidence of research progress. At times a third year is offered for the transition to independence. It is mandatory that in Year 1 the trainee and mentor will outline a career plan for transition to independence, which may include grant preparations for funding through a K08 mechanism or application to the existing K12.